Biology

Based on the science national curriculum for KS3 and Cambridge secondary 1 which leads into IGCSE Science. 

Year 7
6518s Custom
Structure and function of living organisms

Cells and organisation

  • Identify the seven characteristics of living things and relate these to a wide range of organisms in the local and wider environment
  • cells as the fundamental unit of living organisms, including how to observe, interpret and record cell structure using a light microscope
  • the functions of the cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, vacuole, mitochondria and chloroplasts
  • the similarities and differences between plant and animal cells
  • relate the structure of some common cells to their function
  • The hierarchical organisation of multicellular organisms: from cells to tissues to organs to systems to organisms.
  • Calculating magnification
Genetics and evolution

Inheritance, chromosomes, DNA and genes

  • heredity as the process by which genetic information is transmitted from one generation to the next
  • a simple model of chromosomes, genes and DNA in heredity, including the part played by Watson, Crick, Wilkins and Franklin in the development of the DNA model
  • Monohydrid inheritance
Sexual Reproduction in humans

  • reproduction in humans (as an example of a mammal), including the structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems
  • menstrual cycle (without details of hormones)
  • gametes, fertilisation, gestation and birth
  • effect of maternal lifestyle on the foetus through the placenta
Health

  • The effects of recreational drugs (including substance misuse) on behaviour, health and life processes.
Year 8

 Reproduction in plants

  • recognise the positions, and know the functions of the major organs of the flowering plant e.g. stem, root, leaf
  • flower structure, wind and insect pollinated flowers
  • pollination, via animals, wind, water and propulsion
  • fertilisation
  • Seed and fruit formation and dispersal, including quantitative investigation of some dispersal mechanisms.
  • Seed structure and process of germination
Variation and classification

  • Understand what is meant by a species
  • Classify animals and plants into major groups using the binomial system
  • the variation between individuals within a species being continuous or discontinuous, to include measurement and graphical representation of variation
  • the variation between species and between individuals of the same species means some organisms compete more successfully, which can drive natural selection
  • changes in the environment may leave individuals within a species, and some entire species, less well adapted to compete successfully and reproduce, which in turn may lead to extinction
  • use and construct keys to identify plants and animals
  • draw and model simple food chains
Year 9

Nutrition

  • Autotropic, heterotrophic and saprophytic nutrition
  • content of a healthy human diet: carbohydrates, lipids (fats and oils), proteins, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and water, and why each is needed
  • calculations of energy requirements in a healthy daily diet
  • the consequences of imbalances in the diet, including obesity, starvation and deficiency diseases
  • State what is meant by the term balanced diet for humans
  • Explain how age, gender and activity affect the dietary needs of humans
Enzymes

  • Define enzymes as proteins that function as biological catalysts
  • Explain enzyme action with reference to the complementary shape of the active site of an enzyme and its substrate and the formation of a product
  • Explain the effect of changes in temperature on enzyme activity, in terms of kinetic energy, shape and fit, frequency of effective collisions and denaturation
  • Explain the effect of changes in pH on enzyme activity in terms of shape and fit and denaturation
Digestion

  • Define ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion
  • Identify and describe the main regions of the alimentary canal and associated organs, including mouth, salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, large intestine and anus
  • Define chemical and mechanical digestion
  • Explain the function of enzymes, hydrochloric acid and bile in the digestion process
  • Identify the types of human teeth (incisors, canines, premolars and molars) and describe their structure, limited to enamel, dentine, pulp, nerves and cement, as well as the gums
  • Describe the proper care of teeth in terms of diet and regular brushing and state the causes of dental decay
Photosynthesis

  • the reactants in, and products of, photosynthesis, and a word summary for photosynthesis
  • Testing a leaf for starch and experiments to prove requirements in

    Science: I.G.C.S.E

    All students will follow an IGCSE course designed to meet their needs for a GCSE qualification in Science. In common with all science qualifications now on offer, this will be a terminally examined course.

    It is proposed that there will be 2 routes through Science at GCSE.

    Both will involve following a Balanced Science course which includes Biology, Chemistry and Physics.

    Route 1: Combined Science I.G.C.S.E.

    At the end of Year 11, the student will sit 3 exam papers as follows:

    • Paper 1 ( FT) or 2(HT) – 40 multiple choice questions based on all 3 scientific disciplines.
    • Paper 3 (FT) or 4 (HT) - A structured answer based paper that overs all 3 scientific disciplines and encourages the student to consider the overlap that occurs between the sciences.
    • Paper 6 – A practical exam paper which asks students to interpret diagrams, scientific data and record such data in an appropriate manner.

    There is no coursework element as Paper 6 examines the practical skills gained by the students over the 2 year course, without putting pressure on them to undertake a one off practical exam or produce a written scientific essay.

    This course has been chosen since it provides a good grounding in the sciences and also covers the requirements for the AQA Entry Level certificate.

    An Entry Level certificate would only be considered where staff felt that the student involved would struggle to attain the requirements of GCSE Grade G.

    Route 2: Co-ordinated Science I.G.C.S.E.

    Students will follow a 2 year course using the Co-ordinated Science (9-1) (Double Award) specification offered by Cambridge International Exam board. The award may be studied at 2 different levels, core and extended.

    The core award covers grade 1-5 whereas the Extended award covers grades 5-9.
    At the end of Year 11, the student will sit 3 exam papers as follows:

    • Paper 1(FT) or 2 (HT) – 40 multiple choice questions based on all 3 scientific disciplines.
    • Paper3 (FT) or 4 (HT) - A structured answer based paper that overs all 3 scientific disciplines and encourages the student to consider the overlap that occurs between the sciences.

    • Paper 6 – A practical exam paper which asks students to interpret diagrams, scientific data and record such data in an appropriate manner.

    There is no coursework element as Paper 6 examines the practical skills gained by the students over the 2 year course, without putting pressure on them to undertake a one off practical exam or produce a written scientific essay.

    There are common elements to both combined and co-ordinated science courses, thus enabling a student to move course within the first term if required.

    The difference between the combined Science and Co-ordinated Science approach is purely the amount of factual content required and the way in which that factual content is applied.

    It is envisaged that those students who have shown an aptitude for Science are encouraged to enter Route 2. Any student considering an A level in a Science based subject should follow this route.

    The provision of 3 independently assessed science qualifications is possible and is reviewed on an individual basis. This triple award option would involve giving up an option block within the GCSE timetable and thus limits the other options available. terms of reactants

 

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